The Apostles Creed
One of the oldest creeds in church history is know as the Old Roman Creed R. The Old Roman Creed can be traced to the second century. This creed is also known as a baptismal creed. The new convert would confess the Old Roman Creed prior to baptism into the church. The existence of the Old Roman Creed dating back into the second century indicates a very early practice of such confessions within the ancient Church. If we link the old Jewish confessions in the OT with the NT practices of such confessions and then link that to the Old Roman Creed which eventually took shape as the Apostles Creed we witness a seamless connection.
The Nicene Creed
A couple of recommendations:
Church History In Plain Language (Bruce Shelley)
The History of Christianity (Justo L. Gonzalez) 2-volumes
Turning Points (Mark A. Noll)